TERMS OF REFERENCE
Analysis of Income Generating opportunities for beneficiaries under WFP’s
Building Resilience to Achieve Zero Hunger Project
Enhancing the resilience of the vulnerable communities has been the core foundation of WFP’s work in Bangladesh for decades. For the past ten years, WFP has been implementing resilience-building programs for disaster-affected people applying different approaches and methods such as food for asset creation/building (FFA); food for training (FFT), and cash grants (ER+) are among the most tested and successful approaches for enhancing resilience. Government social protection and other development program have included these interventions in their regular annual planning and implementation. However, WFP’s strategic review paper and IDS report have shown that asset building and training alone are not adequate to build the resilience of poor and vulnerable; additional tools must be in place to cover residual risks. Three potential tools – innovative ex-ante micro-insurance, forecast-based financing, and seasonal livelihood planning – have the potential to provide individual-based insurance products, proactive emergency response, and more resilient livelihoods respectively.
The WFP is implementing a project “Building Resilience to Achieve Zero Hunger Project” in Kurigram District. The purpose of the project is to improve the food security of the chronically flood-affected households in a riverine community in the Northwest districts through an innovative approach to resilience building. Under this project. WFP has planned to introduce the Seasonal Livelihoods Planning (SLP) tool in Kurigram Sadar and Chilmari Upazilas of Kurigram District. SLP is a planning tool applied at the sub-national level, bringing together local needs and experiences so that multi-sectoral programs and interventions can be coordinated, planned, and delivered. This tool aims to design and harmonize flexible and longer-term operational plans across institutions and stakeholders. It provides the foundations for resilience planning, bringing together both humanitarian and development interventions.
SLP is carried out through 5-day consultations at the regional level, and 3 days consultation at the community level to strengthen or develop local government plans. SLP is part of the Three-Pronged Approach (3PA), an innovative multi-level programming tool developed by WFP in consultation with governments and partners. The 3PA is made of 3 interrelated processes at 3 different levels including the Integrated Context Analysis (ICA) at the national level; the SLP at the sub-national level; and the Community-Based Participatory Planning (CBPP) at the local level. It helps to prioritize geographic areas for SLP consultations and provide a set of potential actions that may be implemented at the community level.
The WFP and its co-operating partner have conducted Seasonal Livelihoods Planning (SLP) and Community Based Participatory Planning (CBPP) tools at the community level of Kurigram Sadar and Chilmari sub-districts of Kurigram district. The local Government officials such as the Department of Agriculture Extension, Department of Livestock Services, Department of Fisheries, LGED, PIO, Upazila Chairman, UP Chairman, member and community people were actively participated to identify community needs, priority and planned for livelihoods programming. Following the CBBP process, the community people identified some income-generating activities such as agriculture farming, livestock rearing, poultry rearing, fish cultivation, handicrafts, mechanics, electrician, etc which need to assess the appropriateness and economic viability in the context of the river island area.
Objective and scope of the study
The purpose of this study is to identify the IGA’s which are most economically viable while suitable to the specific beneficiary profile in the areas of implementation. Each IGA shortlisted will be accompanied by an IGA profile and training framework to guide the Cooperating Partners to support and oversee the beneficiary’s implementation of the identified IGAs. The profiles will be used by the Cooperating Partner to train the beneficiaries to make an educated choice on the IGA they wish to engage in and guide the CP in organizing training to provide the beneficiaries with the specific technical skills and knowledge to start implementing their chosen IGA.
- To assess the appropriateness and economic feasibility of available IGAs, considering the context in the river island area in Kurigram Sadar and Chilmari Upazilas.
- To recommend the most suitable IGAs that can be done at the individual and/or group level.
- To recommend some suitable IGAs that can be operated by persons with disabilities.
- To develop a catalogue of IGA profiles for each shortlisted IGA, with key info like required inputs, possible ROI, basic implementation method. Together with the WFP team, some examples of successful IGAs undertaken by ER+.
- To advise how the recommended IGAs can be linked with supply-chain in high-value markets and with WFP’s e-vouchers food shops, as possible.
- To prepare a basic business plan template, based on the existing WFP template
- To recommend how to explore possible linkages with similar government programs.
Scope of Analysis:
Based on the objectives, the study will include both quantitative and qualitative analyses to assess the productivity and effectiveness of IGAs using a cost/benefit analysis while carefully considering the context, appropriateness, and feasibility of IGAs. The analysis is intended to cover Kurigram Sadar and Chilmari Upazilas of Kurigram District.
For example, the analysis should identify the best IGAs to recommend to the beneficiaries, based on:
- Cost: initial outlay, purchased inputs, hours worked, unforeseen costs, externalities
- Expected income: ongoing return and one-off sales
- Sustainability/reinvestment: will the IGA be able to grow over time or at least continue in perpetuity?
- The overall return on investment
- Opportunity costs 
- Possibility of reinvestment and sustainability of the IGA
In addition, the analysis should consider contextual aspects to determine the suitability for the beneficiary population, including:
- Beneficiary level factors:
- Preference of the beneficiaries
- Beneficiary skills and experience in the area, literacy
- Societal barriers
- Market access to procure required inputs and sale of outputs
- Seasonality factors and timing
- Availability of government services, and where opportunities for development are available
- Communication and transport
- Any other relevant local circumstances
The recommended shortlist should identify:
- Opportunities for communal or group IGAs
- IGAs that can be managed by females alone, and IGAs that can be managed in combination with household members
- IGAs that can be managed by the person with disabilities.
- Examples of combination IGAs and opportunity for diversified income sources
- Fieldwork (observations, discussions with relevant experts, local bodies when possible and previous and current ER beneficiaries)
- Review of existing relevant projects and reports.
- An analytical report.
The report should outline the background, analysis including the profile of the project area and the beneficiary profile, IGA profiles, and recommendations. The report will include:
- The identification of about ten to fifteen specific IGAs. Each IGA will be accompanied by a detailed profile (see below)
- A training framework,
- A catalog on shortlisted IGAs in Bangla (which will include pictures of IGA, investment time, capital needed, operational procedure, precautionary measures, and benefit)
- Recommended activities for WFP/COs to improve the enabling environment for the success of the IGAs (for example initiatives which sustainably improve market access for beneficiaries)
The final document will also include references, sources, and linkages to existing sector studies or others undertaken by different organizations. When possible, technical training material on the selected IGAs, such as manuals, training courses, contact persons, etc could be provided to WFP. The document should have a very practical focus and a language that can be understood by a general audience. It is meant to be used by practitioners, not academics.
- A presentation (Powerpoint).
At the end of the study, a presentation on the main outcomes emerging from the analysis and on the recommended IGA’s will be held at the Country Office.
- IGA profiles for the shortlisted IGA’s.
Each IGA profile should contain, but not necessarily be limited to, the below elements:
OUTLINE OF THE IGA PROFILE
NAME OF IGA:
- Provide background information and nature of the activity (whether the product or
- service and whether trading or business or production activity, etc., sector
- specification, basic features, overall trend and growth prospects, different
- scales of operation, minimum, optimum and maximum investment found in
- reality etc.)
Technical Aspects of the IGA:
- Inputs, raw materials and equipment needed;
- Sources and availability of raw material their unit
- Technical skills requirement;
Market and Marketing Aspects:
- Demand potential of the products in the local areas and local markets;
- Existing producers/seller in the local areas and their average sales per
- production cycle/ per week / per month, etc.
- The seasonal demand-supply situation of the product and services;
- Scope of wholesales, trading, retailing of the products;
- Value chain analysis of the product and services; etc.
Cost Structure of the IGA
- In this section of the profile, the start-up cost and running cost of the given
- Activity/IGA will be determined considering Tk. 15,000 as the base capital of the entrepreneurs.
- Quantity of goods, raw materials, inputs, etc. will be needed to buy-in each production cycle or business cycle
- The unit cost of the goods, raw materials, and other inputs; etc.
- In this part of the profile, the amount of income can be earned minimum and
- maximum from the IGA in the given cost-structure will be shown based on
- the total investment of Tk. 15,000. The calculation of profit/loss for a given cycle
- will be as follows:
- Total sales in a cycle : ________
- (-) Cost of goods sold : ________
- = Gross income : ________
- (-) Fixed costs : ________
- = Net income : ________
Management Aspects of the IGA:
- In this section, the information will be provided on the management role and the
- type of management functions and skills that are crucial in operating and managing the IGA.
Key Success Factors (KSFs):
- What are some key success factors of the IGA will be described here to make sure that the potential entrepreneurs will consider those before the decision is made for operating this very particular IGA.
Risks Associated with the IGA:
- What are the risks and difficulties associated with the IGA will be described herein detailed? Information will also be provided on how to avert the risks and overcome the difficulties.
Final timelines and contracting periods will be agreed in consultation with the consulting team based on fieldwork needs and schedules. However, it is anticipated that the following timeline will be followed:
|Sharing the final research plan with WFP||20 March 2020|
|Research, (including fieldwork) analysis, and IGA profiles development||21 March to 8 April 2020|
|First draft report submitted||15 April 2020|
|Final report received by WFP||20 April 2020|
Note: Timeline may be change based on the situation
Applications are welcomed from individuals, research and learning institutions, or consultant teams. Interested parties should submit a Curriculum Vitae and cover lettering, clearly demonstrating how skills, competencies, and experience meet the needs of the analysis, as described above, with concrete examples.
A maximum two-page outline of the proposed research process should also be submitted, including:
- Proposed outline of strategy & methodology – including both theoretical and practical methods
- A brief budget covering all major costs and clearly identifying daily rates charged
- A clear indication of availability/dates
Education and Experience
- Advanced University degree (MBA) or higher in Economics/ Social science and above 5 years progressively responsible experience in research and managing data/information with a special focus on IGA, value chain and marketing, poverty, food security, and development issues in the rural area of Bangladesh;
Skills and Competencies
- Advanced knowledge of subsector analysis, with preferably a demonstrated experience in conducting various such subsector studies.
- Experience with IGAs and with Ultra-poor in the rural areas is an advantage.
- Strong analytical skills, ability to work independently with minor supervision
- Good writing skills in Bangla as well as the English language
Interested candidates are requested to submit to the WFP application letter including CV.
- Md Siddiqul Islam Khan, Head of Resilience Innovation Unit, WFP CO (email@example.com )
- Norul Amin, Microinsurance and Livelihood Analyst, WFP CO(firstname.lastname@example.org )
- Ananda Kumar Das, Program Coordinator; GNB-WFP RI Project, GNB (Phone; 01755-634801; email@example.com )
Annex A: Potential Research Questions
What are the current income sources for men, women, and children (if working)?
- Is it subject to seasonality?
- Is it on an ad hoc basis?
- What are the current income sources for vulnerable households? (explain what sort of choices they have in terms of livelihood/ income opportunities).
- What are the livelihood groups?
- What are the potential/ feasible entry points in micro-enterprise value chains for vulnerable women?
- What micro-enterprise value chains are functioning well?
- What micro-enterprise value chains have the potential to grow?
- What are the best micro-enterprises for vulnerable women considering climate adaptation opportunities and risks?
- What are the best micro-enterprises for vulnerable women considering presenting disabilities?
- What are the existing market constraints for vulnerable women?
- What are the existing market opportunities for vulnerable women?
- What micro-enterprise opportunities are most culturally preferred?
- What micro-enterprise opportunities have cultural barriers?
- What services are required to support the identified micro-enterprise opportunities?
 “Opportunity cost” is the cost of the opportunity (i.e. IGA), or how much income the beneficiary sacrifice to engage in the IGA, e.g, the money they would have earned from working as a day laborer, etc. because they worked on the IGA instead.